[Hanfu · 漢服]Chinese Five Dynasties And Ten Kingdoms Period Traditional Clothing Hanfu Based On Paining <簪花仕女图/Court Ladies Adorning Their Hair with Flowers>
The age of creation of <簪花仕女图/Court Ladies Adorning Their Hair with Flowers> has been disputed among historical research scholars.
However, according to recent research and the excavation of more cultural relics from the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, it has gradually been proved that this painting is more in line with the hairstyle and the clothes worn by court women during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
In particular, the towering hairstyle is very consistent with the description of noble women during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Similar female figurines were also unearthed from Tomb of the Empress of Min Kingdom (闽国) Liu Hua (Wang Yanjun’s wife) during the same period：
China Song Dynasty murals<Donors>in Kaihua Temple, Shanxi
[Hanfu · 漢服]China Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD) Chinese Traditional Clothing Hanfu & Hairstyle Based On Kaihua Temple Mural
Ladies' attire in the middle-late Northern Song Dynasty Period
Among the images of many Donors in Kaihua Temple, in addition to the female wearing a crown, there is also a kind of attire with a "knot" hairstyle and a kilt skirt.
This kind of clothing is a long outer gown that often matches with one short and one long, and waer with multiple layers, and the layers of clothing are show at the neckline.
In the murals of Kaihua Temple, there is also a design of a long gown covered with plain gauze, which makes it feel like a person is standing in the smoke. Walking and standing just like a fairy, which can also set off the transparency of the makeup.
Another type of Song Dynasty attire from the same period of Kaihua Temple Mural：
During the Tang Dynasty, Li Shan(李善) quoted "record of the Customs/《风俗通》" recorded : “‘堕马髻者，侧在一边’，......始自梁冀所为，京师翁然皆效之”。
( “堕马髻 [duò mǎ jì]” is a hairstyle with a side hair bun. It was created by Liang Ji's family and later imitated by the people in the capital.)
The characteristic of this hairstyle is that the hair hangs sideways to the shoulders, and a lock of hair is separated from the bun to scatter freely. If combine with “���妆(Makeup that make people look like they are crying)” and “愁眉(sad looking brows)“, it will look like a woman who has just fallen from a horse, which can increase a woman's sense of charm.
The“堕马髻 [duò mǎ jì]”appeared again during the Tianbao era(742–756) of the Tang Dynasty, and became popular during the Zhenyuan period(785–805) of the Tang Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, some people described the shape of roses hanging down and petals gently touch the ground, like the hairstyle “堕马髻 [duò mǎ jì]”. “堕马髻 [duò mǎ jì]”has slightly changed from generation to generation, but its basic characteristics, the sideways and inverted shapes, have not changed. “堕马髻 [duò mǎ jì]” is mainly favored by married middle-aged women.
“堕马髻 [duò mǎ jì]” hairstyle originated in the Han Dynasty, during the Han Dynasty, "《后汉书∙卷六十四∙列传第二十四∙梁冀》" recorded:
Liang Ji(梁冀)'s wife Sun Shou(孙寿) is very beautiful and good at being "bewitching”. She make “愁眉(sad looking brows)“,“啼妆(Makeup that make people look like they are crying)”,as shown below:
“堕马髻(comb your hair bun on one side)” ,”折腰步(refers to swinging the waist when walking)”, as shown below:
“龋齿笑(Refers to a woman's intentionally contrived smile that looks like a toothache, although is very happy inside, woman don’t laugh out loud)”, she thinking these makeup & action that will make her very cute and to attract men.
Sun Shou is jealousy because she can subdue his husband Liang Ji. Liang Ji dotes on her very much, but is also afraid of her.Sun Shou's actions and the makeup she created were deeply loved by women in the imperial city of the Han Dynasty at that time, and they imitated her. And this trend gradually spread to other cities.
Heaven warned: "The army will come to arrest, the women are sad, frowning and crying; the officials and jailers push and kick, break their waists and spines, and make their hair buns tilt; even if they are forced to talk and laugh, they will no longer have that mood."
In the second year of Yanxi(159 AD), the whole clan and family of Liang Ji's was exterminated.
In Chinese history, it is not difficult to found that when a kind of makeup or fashion that tends to show"sad”，“crying" etc,and becomes popular among women. In many cases,It heralds the imminent demise of a dynasty.
Just like the "Blood Halo Makeup/血晕妆" in the late Tang era and popular in the Han, Tang and Southern Song Dynasty brows makeup “愁眉(sad looking brows)“.When these makeups appeared, the empire also getting weakened.
Therefore, Chinese literati and scholars of in history criticized these fashion/trend, and believed that it was a sign of the collapse of the country.
After the Tang and Song Dynasties, it evolved from the Futou(幞头) of the warriors and the 抹额(Mǒ é). In the Ming Dynasty, it was still used by the soldiers, and the generals also wore it when they wore casual clothes.
In Ming Dynasty book【Sancai Tuhui /三才圖會】which is a Chinese leishu encyclopedia compiled by Wang Qi has reocord about the 结巾(Jié jīn) & 将巾(Jiāng jīn):
结巾(Jié jīn) & 将巾(Jiāng jīn) in Ming Dynasty Portrait of Zhen-shuo General Tang Tong,Anonymous, Chongzhen period.
・结巾(Jié jīn) & 将巾(Jiāng jīn) in the Ming Dynasty novels "Yanyibian/艳异编"
・ Ming Dynasty Woodblock Prints Painting in book 《御世仁风》
烏紗帽(Wūshāmào); lit. 'black gauze cap':
We will find out that the 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) worn by the model seems to be particularly tall.
This is because the shape and the height of the 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) worn by officials in different periods of the Ming Dynasty was slightly different according to the fashion and rule at that time.
The following is the evolution of the 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) from the year of Xuande宣德 (1426) to end of year of 崇祯(1644) ,actual demonstrated by Cosmos化的夢興
From the picture above, we can clearly see that the 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) cap were the highest in the Jiajing（1522-1566) year and Wanli(1573-1620) years.
【Ming Dynasty 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) cap Relics & Portrait】:
The 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) cap bestowed by Emperor Wanli on Uesugi Kagekatsu 上杉景胜, 30 cm high, in 1594 (the 22nd year of Wanli)
Ming Dynasty Officials,Portrait of Xing Jie（ October 26, 1540 - March 17, 1612 ）
Ming Dynasty Officials,Portrait of Gao Han, drawn in 1611 (the thirty-ninth year of Wanli)
After the 40th year of Wanli, the height of 烏紗帽(Wūshāmào) cap gradually became shorter like：
Ming Dynasty official, portrait of Kong Shangxian died in 1621 (the first year of Tianqi天启)
[Hanfu · 漢服]Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) Traditional Clothing Hanfu Photoshoot
China Eastern Han Dynasty Playing Qin Pottery Figurine
China Eastern Han Dynasty Playing the Dizi(Chinese flute) Pottery Figurine
China Wei and Jin Dynasties "person who conveys official documents and letters" Mural Bricks
[Hanfu・漢服]Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 A.D.) Traditional Clothing Hanfu & Headwear
During the Eastern Han Dynasty, men's attire was usually wider than the Western Han Dynasty period, which was more convenient for activities.The collocation of wearing Jie Zhi(介帻) and straight train robes(直裾袍服) is favored by scholars at the time.
This set of attire for the scholars/literati of the Eastern Han Dynasty is wearing a Jie Zhi /介帻 on head, with a purple brocade border cotton robe, red silk cotton trousers, waering a yellow gauze on the outermost layer, and a brocade pouch around the waist.
At the time, the fashion of wearing gauze robe was still popular, which looked elegant and dignified, without losing the beauty of agility and elegance.
This set of attire has existed among the literati until the Wei and Jin Dynasties.
[Hanfu · 汉服]Chinese Ming Dynasty Wanli period (1573–1620 AD) Traditional Clothing Hanfu & Hairstyle Based On Ming Wanli period woodblock print painting
【About the Hairstyle 鬃髻(Zōng jì)】
The 鬃髻(Zōng jì) is one of the traditional Han ethnic woman hairstyles. It lasted from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty, and it still exists among Hakka(客家) elderly women.
We can see this hairstyle in the painting "《李端端图》" by Tang Yin(唐寅), a painter of the Ming Dynasty.Collection of Nanjing Museum
The 鬃髻(Zōng jì) can be matched with other hairstyles,like below:
Peony Head (牡丹头)+鬃髻(Zōng jì),
Ming Dynasty Green-glazed female pottery figurines,Collection of Guangdong Museum
Ming Dynasty Colored Sculpture of Jellyfish Building in Jinci Temple/晋祠水母楼明代彩塑
Qing Dynasty 鬃髻(Zōng jì),Qing Dynasty figurines
The Hakka(客家) ’s 鬃髻(Zōng jì) is divided into: 三把头(Sān bǎtóu) and 两把头 Liǎng bǎtóu)
For the most typical 三把头(Sān bǎtóu) , it divides the hair into three layers: upper, middle and lower. The part of the hair from the front of the forehead to the top of the head is called "门股(Mén gǔ)", and 门股 is divided into three parts: left, middle and right.Generally, some wigs are placed on the hair or combed the hair in reverse way to make it look fluffy.So from the front, it will have a very “full” effect of hair.
The 三把头(Sān bǎtóu) with 鬃髻(Zōng jì) of Hakka women in old photos
The part below the 三把头 (Sān bǎtóu) is generally called "髻尾". The upper, middle and lower parts of the hair will eventually tied together.
↓Schematic diagram in the book "Discussion on Liudui Hakka Traditional Clothing《六堆客家传统衣饰的探讨》"
Hakka(客家) ’s 鬃髻(Zōng jì) :两把头 (Liǎng bǎtóu)
The :两把头 Liǎng bǎtóu) is the 三把头 (Sān bǎtóu) that simplifies the part of the "髻尾（The lower part）" , and divides the hair into two part,which is "门股(Mén gǔ)" and the "髻尾(The lower part).
※Some information says that 两把头 (Liǎng bǎtóu) are unmarried woman hairstyle and 三把头 (Sān bǎtóu) are married woman hairstyle, but this is not the case when looking at the photos
Lastly,Twho are familiar with Japanese culture may notice that above hairstyles are look similar to some hairstyles in Japan call 島田髷.But the method of divide the hair into sections, the way that make the sideburns and the shape after tied the hair together make it to a difference effect from china.
According 日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ),Japan's 島田髷 hairstyle is beginning from the 16th century of Edo period, while the China is also on late Ming period(※usually refers to from the beginning of Wanli (1573) to the end of Chongzhen (1644)）.
Not sure if there is a connection between the japan and china. I will update if there is more information.
We may have noticed that there is a button on the collar of the woman top in the Ming Dynasty Painting【明宪宗元宵行乐图/Ming Emperor Xianzong Enjoying the Lantern Festival 】:
This kind of button is called “子母扣 zimukou”：
(the restoration works above show may not be that clear cuz the buttons too small,but if u look carefully and you will see)
In《酌中志·内臣佩服纪略》BY 刘若愚(Ming dynasty eunuch) records that ： “凡脖领，亦不许外露，亦不得缀钮扣；只宫人脖领则缀钮扣。”
”the collar of the neck is not allowed to be exposed, nor can it be decorated with buttons. Only the people in the Ming palace(exclude eunuchs) are allowed to decorated with buttons on their collar”
However, this rule does not seem to have fully implemented in the Ming Dynasty, and may have even been abolished, because we can see that many portraits which not from Ming palace that woman are used buttons on their collars.
❗ The clothing system in the early Ming Dynasty was not perfect, and had undergone several reforms, and some wealthy civilians may not have fully complied with the orders issue by the Ming imperial court.
Many people think that “子母扣 zimukou”, it is a button made of metal. However, from the unearthed relics, we can know that 子母扣 zimukou can be made of other materials besides metal, such as: gold,silver, jade, gem or amber etc.
Zhengde period (1506-1521):菊潭郡主墓鎏金银扣(silver)
It is easy to rust, and the number of silver buttons unearthed is not much
Wanli period (1572–1620):“福”字宝相花钮扣(gilt&gem)
蝶恋花金扣(gold),Jun County Museum, Hebi City, Henan Province
“子母扣 zimukou” buttons existed from the early Ming Dynasty to the mid-Qing Dynasty(There are many different shapes of 子母扣 zimukou).And the button can be used in different type of clothing.
Early Ming Dynasty Period Portrait()
Ming Dynasty Empress Renxiaowen Portrait:(used on 大衫)
Ming Dynasty Painting: Baoning Temple Shuilu Painting
（use on 主腰：An undershirt or underbodice worn in Ming��
We can also see “子母扣 zimukou(buttons)” on some men's clothing in Ming:
Ming Dynasty Empress Xiaojiesu (1508–1528) Portrait
Ming Dynasty Hanfu Relics unearthed from the tombs of King Yixuan(朱翊鈏 one of the royal family member) and his wife:
(use on 立领对襟短袄 standing collar short 袄Ao )
Ming Dynasty Wanli period (1572–1620) ShuiLu Painting：
Recreation By @皮卡瑶的凝视
(use on 圆领对襟长衫 round collar long shirt)
Late Ming-Early Qing Dynasty Portrait：(using on 立領長衫"standing collar long shirt”)
“子母扣 zimukou” buttons not only used on clothes, but even use on forehead/hair bands： 珠子箍/抹额
Unearthed from the tomb of the Qian family in the Ming Dynasty
※Below Qing Dynasty painting showing how 珠子箍/抹额 wear on head
So far we can know that "Zimukou 子母扣" buttons was widely used in Ming Dynasty and played a vital role in Ming Dynasty clothing.
Until the 18th century, with the change of clothing it was gradually disappears and replaced by 盘扣 pankou：
An old photo of the Qing Dynasty Woman, 18th century METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
Lastly, it is worth mentioning that buttons that similar 盘扣 pankou has appeared before the Qing Dynasty,call”纽绊Niǔ bàn”.
Sleeveless jacket from Ming Dynasty:
A cross-collar shirt (矩纹纱交领单衫) & Beizi（褙子) unearthed from a tomb in the Southern Song Dynasty:
Chinese Ming Dynasty Painting(1485 CE)：【明宪宗元宵行乐图/Ming Emperor Xianzong Enjoying the Lantern Festival (part)】showing court lady in the ming dynasty
※ Women with gold patterns in Hanfu (top) had titles/rank in the court of the Ming Dynasty, and they may be imperial concubines, princesses, etc.
[Hanfu · 汉服]Chinese Ming Dynasty Chenghua era(1465-1487 AD) Traditional Clothing Hanfu & Hairstyle
【About horsehair skirt (马尾裙) petticoat】
A horsehair petticoat (马尾裙) is a petticoat that is worn under the skirt to give it a puffy appearance. This kind of petticoat came from Korea Joseon at that time.
❗ However, it would be wrong to say that the entire outfit above is Korean origin as someone claim.
In Ming Dynasty record “寓圃杂记/Yu Pu Notes” By Wang Kai王锜 emphasizes that this style of clothing (马尾裙horsehair petticoat) is a kind of ominously strange clothing , which is what the ancients called “服妖(A derogatory term that describes people wearing weird clothing is bad symbol)”. It is only popular among rich and uneducated people, and will let decent people look down on, the original words are “ 然系此者惟粗俗官员、暴富子弟而已，士夫甚鄙之，近服妖也 ”
Horsehair petticoats are popular in Beijing. Demand was low at first, and local production was impossible and unnecessary. They are all imported from Korea Joseon. When it becomes popular, even men like to wear horsehair petticoats under their robes, and the demand and market will naturally increase, so localized production began. But the number of horses is limited, and the most important raw material, horse hair, is not easy to obtain.
So some people went to the army camp to steal the horse hair of the army horse, which made the army horse look thin and bad.
❗In the Early Emperor Hongzhi era,the officials reported these incident to the Emperor Hongzhi(1470-1505)of the Ming Dynasty said”京中士人好著马尾衬裙，因此官马被人偷拔鬃尾，有误军国大计。乞要禁革”Saying that such behavior is not good for the country and suggest to ban horsehair petticoat. So Emperor Hongzhi make an order to banned people wearing Horsehair petticoats
Since then, this horsehair petticoat gradually disappeared from China history
❗ It is worth mentioning that even in the period when horsehair petticoats were popular, not everyone wore horsehair petticoats, as shown in the book “释氏源流应化事迹” in the Chenghua era of Ming Dynasty (AD 1465-1487): ( Women that not wear horsehair petticoats)
After Emperor Hongzhi banned the wearing of horsehair petticoats (back to the silhouette of Hanfu in the Ming Dynasty), as shown below
Murals in the tomb chamber of Zhengde period (1506-1521) - Jiajing period (1522-1566):：