#Prayers to Gaulish Gods
jasper-pagan-witch · 2 years
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(Photo by Livin4wheel on Unsplash)
O Cernunnos, He of Liminality
Horned One, Keeper of Riches
The one who dwells both sides
Bridge and guide from one state to another
Thank you for your aid, your guidance,
Your wisdom, your knowledge
O Cernunnos, He Who Sits At Crossroads
We thank you
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fernthewhimsical · 2 years
You stand tall within your sacred grove,
The sun's rays shining through your antlered crown
I feel your call, oh, Cernunnos
You stand rooted deeply within the Earth,
Connected to all things living and passed,
I hear your call, oh, Cernunnos
You lead the dance ‘round the blazing bonfire,
The drums echoing the beat of your heart
I feel your call, oh, Cernunnos
You lead the hunt through forest deep,
The spirit of hunting wolf and hunted stag both,
I hear your call, oh, Cernunnos
You stand firmly ‘pon the threshold,
The liminal of body and time and place is yours,
I feel your call, oh, Cernunnos
You sit cross-legged between the standing stones,
The power of tree and root and fur and fang is yours,
I hear your call, oh, Cernunnos
You wear the torc of sun-bright shining gold,
The wealth of coin and wealth of life are yours to give,
I feel your call, oh, Cernunnos
You hold the horned serpent within your grasp,
The keeper of ancient knowledge and lore long forgotten,
I hear your call, oh, Cernunnos
[Poem/prayer by Marjolijn Ashara, a.k.a. me]
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paganpillar · 1 year
Thank you for the winds which carry your powerful paroxysms .
Thank you for the rain which strengthens and nourishes my home.
Bring the heavy rains which soak our ground with you almighty power.
Blow the winds and spread the seeds of life to regenerate what we have destroyed.
Awaken us with your commanding call and announce your undeniable presence,
So that we may remember again.
Thank you Taranis of the Sky, for this beautiful gift you have given me today.
May you continue to grace us with what we so desperately need.
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Gallo-Roman God of: Thunder, lightning, thunderstorms, the spoked wheel, and protector. Sometimes attributed to Jupiter.
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prayer for an evening shower
Braton tei, Apollo Grannus,
Braton tei, Sirona,
For this water that I use this evening,
And its cleaning effects,
I praise you!
And I praise the many others,
Gods, spirits, and my fellow humans,
Who helped to bring this water here from far away.
Braton tei!
May this water cleanse my body of filth,
That I might be clean, comfortable, and healthy
And that I might avoid causing others around me to fall sick.
May this water cleanse my soul of filth,
That I might sleep peacefully
And greet the new day with happiness
And with the energy to do my duties.
Braton tei, Apollo Grannus!
Braton tei, Sirona! 
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blesscernunnos · 10 months
If you don't mind me asking, what was your first experience with Cernunnos?
I'm so sorry if this has been in my inbox for a long time, life and death caught up to me and wowie, I got busy!
My first experience with Cernunnos came through Wicca. I'm not Wiccan anymore, but Wiccans tend to venerate the Mother Goddess and Horned God.
A lot of people think Cernunnos and the Horned God are separate because there are a lot of differences between them. However, my experience was that the Horned God is just another facet of Cernunnos, a way for Him to connect with modern people. After all, we are much different from the Gaulish worshippers of old! Change is natural...
So I worshipped mostly the Mother Goddess for quite some time but then I started to get a feeling that I should worship the Horned God more. His presence was amazing and beautiful. As I left Wicca and became more of a "non-denominational" pagan, The Horned God came to me more and more as not a nameless title but as Cernunnos. As I read about Cernunnos in the Gaulish context I realized that this was absolutely Cernunnos, and His consistent presence, acceptance of offerings, acceptance of my prayers, and the peace I felt reading about Him confirmed that.
I don't have a first experience as in a specific event, it's more of a timeline of experiences that lead to this point.
Hail Cernunnos!
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blackwattlenemeton · 1 year
Morning Prayer
Having moved away from Norse Heathenry, I no longer use those excellent passages from the Sigrdrífumál as my morning prayer. They don’t feel right anymore. So I’ve written something else. The first version was just okay, but didn’t feel quite right after road-testing it for a little while, so I took out the Gaulish, Slavic, and Anglo-Saxon words, and instead asked myself what I really wanted and felt. The current result is simple, snappy, and has just a little spice of other languages. Here it is.
To the rising of the ancient sun
And the shining of the bright day.
May your light fall upon me
And keep me safe and whole.
To the wheel that turns overhead
And the earth that lies underfoot.
May I be honoured by my place
Within your vast cycle.
To the gods who surround us
And the ancestors who witness us.
May I be guided by your wisdom
And face the world with courage.
I wanted some words to represent the Celtic, the Slavic, and the Germanic parts of my current practice. ‘Salve’ is a Latin greeting, but would have been used in the Roman Celtic world. ‘Slava’ is used in Slavic paganism and means roughly ‘glory’. ‘Sāli’ is, technically, reconstructed Proto-West-Germanic (at least, according to Wiktionary…) and means something like ‘joy’, ‘happiness’, and wellbeing. I picked this word because I wanted a Germanic word of roughly the 100-500 CE period that could be used as a greeting or interjection, and ideally started with an ‘s’ to match the rest of the words. I didn’t use ‘hail’, which would have been easy, or any of its older variants, ‘hāl’ (Old English), or even ‘*hail’ (Proto-West-Germanic), because it doesn’t feel right – reminds me too much of Norse Heathenry. ‘Sāli’ may not have been – and probably wasn’t – used as a greeting, and might not even be appropriate, but I can’t time travel and I’ll never know. But for now, it sounds and feels good, so I’m gonna use it.
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dimancheetoile · 1 year
hi! i was hoping to connect over the goddess damona. i came across your post regarding her. i was hoping to find out if you knew of resources regarding her / ways to honor her and offer her??
Oh absolutely, she's one of the Goddesses I'm Dedicated to. In case you're unfamiliar with the concept, in certain Druidic Circles and Celtic/Gaulish traditions, people who are in training in the Bardic, Vatic and Druidic ways as well as fully in place in those roles can Dedicate themselves to a number of Gods and Goddesses. It means you worship them regularly, you're able to lead ceremonies and rituals in their honour, you can guide worshipers in their prayers or guive guidance in ways to connect to the deities, etc. It's a pledge, and oath to do right by the deity and always put them above all, to respect them and Know them so that the rest of the Tribe can rely on you to do the brunt of the religious work while they can simply honour the Gods in their own ways.
There are tons of resources I could give you but I'm unsure how interested the people who follow me are regarding witchcraft and Gaulish tradition, so I would instead offer that we chat privately. That way I can answer all your questions instead of going through asks.
(and if I'm mistaken and you lovely people are actually interested in this stuff, you can always manifest yourselves and I'd be more than happy to talk about this side of my life)
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hearthfirehandworks · 4 years
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Prayer to Borvo, Gaulish Celtic god, worshipped at healing springs.
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Some good books about Gaulish paganism - a review
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In English: The religion of the Ancient Celts; MacCulloch
Is this book actually dedicated to the cults of the Gaulish people? Yes and nope. MacCulloch try to write about the idea of the religion of the ancient Celts, insular and continental one, and for that reason I felt the necessity to advise this text.
But for what reason we must read a book that speak also of the insular Celtic Deities? Druids were literally an "association" of erudites and scholars, and the ones who was want to study for became a priest/priestess (but also a poet, or a doctor, or a judge) must to start a travel. A travel in the insular Celtic region. Taking it lightly, it was an Erasmus.
In this book we learn something about the spiritual dimension of the Celts, starting from historical sources, more "modern" like the Irish mythology and more old like archeological finds (sites generally in Gaul). You will learn something about the pan-celtic Gods (that are the Ones who we can find in all the ancient Celtic world) and about some rites and believes of the time.
The author try to be the most objective as possible and his theories are reported as what they are - theories.
For me, this is one of my favourite books on the argument - and now I started to read so much more! Stay tuned.
- Introduction
- The Celtic people
- The Gods of the Gaul and of the Continental Celts
- The Irish mythological cycle
- The Tuatha dé Danann
- Cuchulain saga
- Fionn's saga
- Gods and men
- Cults of the dead
- Primitive cult of the Nature
- Cult of the Rivers and the Springs
- Cult of the Trees and Plants
- Cult of the Animals
- Cosmogony
- Sacrifice, prayer and divination
- Taboos
- Festivities
- Weapons of the Cult
- Druids
- Magic
- The condition of the dead
- Rebirth and transmigration
- The "Elisio"
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chronarchy · 6 years
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A simple prayer to a deity that speaks to me.
Photo taken in the Musée de Cluny | musée national du Moyen Age, Paris, France.
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paganpillar · 1 year
"My thoughts arise. May good things be thought by me today.
I open my eyes. Let good things be seen by me today.
I open my lips. Let good things be said by me today.
The grace of the Gods upon this day. I walk with the Gods."
Gaulish Prayer by Ceiswr Serith
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Master Raymond takes Claire under his wing; he reveals secrets about the stones and the people who can travel through them.
No Fate But What We Make: Chapter 1 || Chapter 2
There is something comforting about huddling around afire with your clan.
I remember learning by firelight when I was a boy.
My father and grandfather patiently taught me the spellsof pain, fire, fertility, and healing. They opened my eyes to a world full ofspirits and demons and angels. They taught me the difference between red andgreen and orange and blue auras.
Together on the sun feasts and fire feasts we would chantin the stone circles. Dance around bonfires. Leave gifts for the spirits. Andwalk through time.
I remember huddling with my wife around the hearthfire ofour own small dwelling, during the single blessed decade we had shared as Romaninfluence waned in Gaul. Cradling our children. Teaching them the secrets ofplants, and incantations in my father’s dead language, and the joy and dangerof our gifts.
Claire was a direct descendant of my union with Leuca. Perhapsit was Claire’s name that had drawn me to her at first – for Leuca’s name wasderived from the Gaulish leucos, meaning bright or clear. The two womenwere separated by a millennium and a half. But the more I knew Claire, the moreI could see my beloved in her face, in her tenacity, and in her heart.
Tonight, gathered around the blazing hearth in thebackcountry of North Carolina, I watched the firelight play on Claire’s face.And the faces of her husband, and daughter, and son-in-law, and granddaughter,and grandson. The blue glow surrounding each of them was almost as bright to meas the fire that warmed us.
I watched Amanda quietly toddle over to me from her spotsnug between her parents. She rested her small hand on mine.
You’re like us.
Her dark eyes blazed up at me.
Yes, mon petit. I too can travel through the stones.
Across the room, Brianna stirred. Claire rested a steadyinghand on her shoulder. I knew their eyes watched me, but I couldn’t tear my eyesaway from this very special little girl.
Why can we do it? Mama says it’s because Grannie cando it.
I caressed her soft cheek. Because we carry within usa gift that many people forgot, a long time ago. It is our responsibility tounderstand and cherish this gift.
Amanda pursed her lips, thinking. Then she turned away –but kept her hand on mine.
Brianna cleared her throat. “Yes, lovie?”
“Raymond says we’re special.”
Roger wrapped his arm around his wife’s shoulder.
“Of course we’re special, honey. That’s why we were ableto come here. That’s why Grannie was able to come here first, before I wasborn.”
Amanda turned back to face me. This time she spoke aloudfor everyone’s benefit. “But why, Raymond? Why can we?”
The fire crackled in the hearth.
From the mouths of babes.
“A long time ago, Raymond – before I came to France – I metRoger’s ancestor, Geillis Duncan.” Claire gazed into the fire, one hand curledaround a glass of whisky, her other hand entwined with Jamie’s. “I found outshe could travel. She said we had the ability to travel, so that we couldchange things.”
She took a long sip of whisky. “When Jamie and I met youin Paris, we were trying to change things. We failed – miserably. In fact, I’veoften thought that our actions actually helped events take place.”
“Claire – ” Jamie interjected.
Her next words came out all in a rush. “I don’t want youto think I’m ungrateful for the life I’ve had. Because I’m not – certainly not.I found the other half of my soul. Against the odds I made a family with him.And here we all are, together. Because, in part, of you, Raymond.”
She sighed. “I know why I fell through time – it was tofind Jamie. But that’s the reason specific to me. Surely there must be anexplanation for all of it – for all of us.”
Carefully I lifted Amanda to my lap. One by one, I lookedat the faces of my family.
“I asked my father that same question, the first night wewalked together through time.”
“Ye learned it from yer Da?” Jeremiah gaped.
“And he from his father before him. I wasn’t much olderthan Amanda. It was the summer solstice. Father chanted the prayer, then lay myhand on the stone.”
“Where was this?” Brianna asked softly.
“The Romans called it Gaul. In your time you know it asFrance. Near what is now Verdun, to be specific.”
“And when was this?”
I considered how to answer. “We kept track of time differentlyin those days. By my calculation, about four hundred years before Jesus ofNazareth.”
“Christ,” Jamie breathed.
“What about your father?” Roger sat up a bit straighterbeside his wife. “When was he from?”
“I do not know the year. But he did tell me how he andhis clan would paint inside caves, and perform rituals there. I visited once,when I spent some time in Lascaux in the 1980s.” I cleared my throat. “Anyway –when we passed through the stone, I could see what I now know to be wagons andcarts. Hundreds of men running in all directions. Loud explosions. The eartherupting in flame.”
“The First World War.” Roger rubbed his face with hishands. “Holy God.”
“Father and I returned immediately, of course. I rememberresting against another stone in the circle, terrified. I was shaking veryhard. But I’ll never forget what he told me.”
I paused. Memory was a funny thing – one does not thinkabout an event for years, and all of a sudden every small detail floods back.The way the clouds caught the sunset. The sharp tang of crushed grass beneathmy shoes. The cool sweat trickling down the back of my neck.
“Father said that ours is a heavy burden to bear. For we touchthe pulse of time. But that in exchange for this burden, we have a gift thatcannot be matched.”
“Which is?” Claire’s voice lifted in anticipation.
“To change things.”
Her brows furrowed. Skeptical. “But –”
“I have enriched the lives of those I care for. I savedyour life. Did I not change things? What about the hundreds of people you havehealed – have you not changed things?”
“Ye told Jenny to plant potatos at Lallybroch.” Jamie’svoice was so gentle. “Did ye no’ change things for our family – helped themstay alive?”
“But just because we can change things, doesna mean weshould.” Roger crossed his legs. “Before Bree and I came back – I visited Jamie’shome in Scotland, not long before his father died. I could have warned him ofwhat was to come. But that would have changed things – and perhaps Jamie wouldnever have met Claire.”
“But you do not know that for certain,” I gently chided. “Yesof course you could have changed that course. But you could also have setanother course which would have led to the same conclusion. You will neverknow.”
I shifted Amanda to my other knee. “We have all changed things.I could have chosen to not heal you, Claire – and yet, here you are. You couldhave chosen to not return to Jamie – and yet you did, and one would argue youhave these two beautiful grandchildren as a result.”
Claire sighed.
I closed my eyes. “Father said it was my responsibilityto change the lives of my family, and those within my care. I hope I have livedup to that responsibility.”
The room settled into silence. Images from eightcenturies flashed in my memory. As did my visit to this same home, a centuryhence, in the aftermath of yet another war.
Amanda patted my hand. “I like being your family.”
I kissed the top of her head. “As do I, petite fille.”
“As do I,” Claire echoed, crossing the room andenfolding me in her embrace.
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minnesotadruids · 3 years
What are the basic values of a druid? Trying to understand what exactly druidry is.
Druidry has no universally defined set of values, which makes it tricky to pin down. In terms of basic values, I can start with what druids might have in common.
Reverence for Nature: I find it hard to believe that there could ever be a druid who does not have some degree of appreciation for the natural world. This could range from a deep respect to all-out worship, depending on the individual. Many druids seek to establish a connection with the Earth and with Nature. We’re not here to conquer it, but to acknowledge that we are part of it. The Earth is a deity that we can prove exists.
Subcategory - Trees: I often meet up with people who have an interest in druidry around the Minneapolis area, and one thing that almost all of us mention is a love of trees that (at least in part) drew us in. After all, even the ancient Romans observed that the druids had something to do with trees and were the knowers of the oak.
Subcategory - Environmentalism: Stewardship, using our natural resources wisely, seeking balance, and taking care of our only home planet are important to modern druids. The Industrial Revolution in part led to the increase in popularity of the Druidry Revival Movement. Many druids promoted getting back to nature in a world where mills, factories, and machines began to dominate the landscape and take its toll. With deforestation, mining, and waste, we also have a concern for the animals that we should be sharing the world with.
Peace: According to Roman historian Strabo in his writing Geographica, the ancient druids “…prevented armies from engaging when drawn up in battle array against each other.” In the Druidry Revival Movement, many members were liberal Christians and Unitarians. The English Civil War and the Jacobite Rebellions, carrying overtones of religious superiority (Protestant vs Catholic) were ongoing or still fresh in the memory of the people. Many of these Revival Druids wanted a more peaceful existence and spirituality. Naturally, they liked the notion that the ancient druids had the power to halt warfare. Pacifism stuck around as a popular druid value in just about every modern druid order.
Balance: Many druids strive to practice mindfulness and moderation, while understanding that nature is about giving and taking. Even as there is day, so must there be night. There are many druids who embrace the dark and the light equally, while other druids see that the world is already saturated in darkness and try to balance that out, and that takes its toll on us. That brings us to the importance of self care. When we have too much of one thing that wears away at the heart, we need to give some balance to our own lives on a personal level.
Creativity: Many druids have some form of creative expression. The bardic arts aren’t limited to just poetry and song. We are also artisans, hobbyists, and craftspeople. We create sacred artwork, ritual tools, jewelry, supplies, and more. We may be in varying states of skill, but hey, everyone starts somewhere.
This is where I go out on a limb (oh the pun!) and cover additional values that I would hope most (if not all) druids have.
If there’s any single modern druidic writing that encompasses values, it’s the Druid’s Prayer, originally written by the bard Iolo Morganwg and has since been adapted into numerous versions. OBOD has an excellent page on the Druid’s Prayer [here] with their choice of verse. The next eight values below are right out of the prayer.
Protection: Okay, so who doesn’t want to be safe? Protection is universally important, particularly for people with fringe beliefs and practices. This is not limited to only physical protection; it can certainly also mean magical and spiritual protection as well.
Strength: I’m willing to bet this is primarily in the sense of nonphysical strength. This can mean emotional strength, courage, integrity, dedication, perseverance, and more. And yes, there are probably some body-builder druids who mean strength literally.
Knowledge: The ancient druids would take up to 19 years (vaguely like achieving a Master’s Degree today) to commit everything to memory. That included history, lore, law, medicine, astronomy/astrology, magic, theology, philosophy, logic, sacred geometry, and others. Of course with modern literacy, we can learn things much faster with the written word. That doesn’t mean we’re committing it all to memory, but we have the added ability to conduct research in the modern era and access knowledge almost instantaneously. We have a thirst for learning, which fosters a path to Awareness. Many of us are also on a quest for truth and discerning correct knowledge from the incorrect. There is a lot of misleading information out there and we feel it is important to get it right.
Understanding: I personally interpret this as wisdom. Wisdom is applied knowledge, which first requires us to understand what we know on a deeper level. Wisdom is often achieved through experiences. For many, druidry is an experiential lifestyle, not just merely a nature-based spirituality.
Justice: The ancient druids served many purposes, and some were looked up to as judges and interpreters of the law. Unfortunately we can’t all be judges, but perhaps not all ancient druids were judges anyway. Through logic and reason we can think and act justly. Living beings are deserving of fairness and a balance of equality.
Love: Concern and compassion for our fellow beings comes to us through the most powerful emotion. Sure, Nature can be cold and emotionless, yet druids still feel a driving force to gaze out at her beauty in love, wonder, and awe. (Regarding wonder and awe for Earth, see also [this video] on the Overview Effect.) For many, love is just part of the deal.
Divinity: Not all druids believe in a higher power, but many do. Some druids are hard polytheists, believing in many deities. Some druids are soft polytheists, believing that the gods are aspects of one divine source. Some druids are pantheists, believing that everything is divine, and deity is everything. Some druids are panentheists, believing everything is divine, yet deity is also a separate being. Some druids are monotheists and liberal Christians. Some druids are spiritual but not religious. Many druids, in addition to some of the above categories, are animists, believing that everything has its own spirit, even rocks and plants. Because of the flexibility in this category, it really doesn’t make a difference how you perceive divinity to be a druid. Write that down.
Goodness: Above I mentioned balance. To avoid contradictions, I should mention that balance is good in most situations. We certainly don’t need Evil to balance out Good. We don’t want half the world population to be racists, for example… zero racists is a good balance. Humility is also important. Druidry is not about egoism, nor power struggles, nor conceitedness. 
Community: The ancient druids were the spiritual leaders of their communities. Strabo mentions in Geographica  that the Gaulish Celts “…would not sacrifice without the presence of the Druids.” (Side note: most modern druid orders condemn animal or human sacrifice, but I digress.) We advance faster when we work together, such as in study groups, organizing events, or completing projects.
Leadership: Whether we are leaders of our communities, of our Groves, or how we lead our lives by example, leadership is important. There are many solo druids out there, and that’s perfectly fine. Solo druids are their own clergy, and leaders of their own spirit. Many solo druids feel they can get more accomplished if they follow their own guidance at their own pace.
There are certainly many more values that druids have that might not be listed here, but this is a good start. I am grateful with special thanks to my friends in Northern Roots Grove & Druid Order of North America (DONA) who helped ensure that I have a well-rounded list.
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Deity Work Challenge
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Sacred Paths Discord is hosting the seven day Deity Work Challenge. Yesterday we set goals for this challenge and wrote a prayer to our Deity. For Day 2 we have a wonderful tarot spread to check on the status of your relationship with your deity!
Join to see the spread!
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This Challenge will be seven days with the last day falling on Halloween. On the last day we will post an easy ritual you can do with your Deity to bond.
The ritual is created to be changed and modified to fit your path of practice.
Join Sacred Paths to participate in this challenge!
Sacred Paths is an 18 and up community set around the Gods. Here we have a place for all paths of worship. If you are an eclectic pagan or even just are looking for a community around paganism consider joining our community.
We have:
🖤Places for multiple pantheons. Are you Kemetic, Hellenic, Roman, Celtic, Gaulish, Norse or another path? You can join all these options with role selection.
🖤We have friendly discussions on deeper topics as well as sharing our love of the Gods and our connection to them.
🖤 Places for community and much more.
If you have been looking for a home centered around multiple religions, or even just one religion, please come check us out!
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orthodoxydaily · 3 years
Saints&Reading: Thu., Aug. 6, 2020
Saint Christina of Tyre (300)
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The Martyr Christina lived during the third century. She was born into a rich family, and her father was governor of Tyre. By the age of 11 the girl was exceptionally beautiful, and many wanted to marry her. Christina’s father, however, envisioned that his daughter should become a pagan priestess. To this end he placed her in a special dwelling where he had set up many gold and silver idols, and he commanded his daughter to burn incense before them. Two servants attended Christina.
In her solitude, Christina began to wonder who had created this beautiful world. From her room she was delighted by the stars of the heavens and she constantly came back to the thought about the Creator of all the world. She was convinced, that the voiceless and inanimate idols in her room could not create anything, since they themselves were created by human hands. She began to pray to the One God with tears, entreating Him to reveal Himself. Her soul blazed with love for the Unknown God, and she intensified her prayer all the more, and combined it with fasting.
One time Christina was visited by an angel, who instructed her in the true faith in Christ, the Savior of the world. The angel called her a bride of Christ and told her about her future suffering. The holy virgin smashed all the idols standing in her room and threw them out the window. In visiting his daughter Christina’s father, Urban, asked her where all the idols had disappeared. Christina was silent. Then, having summoned the servants, Urban learned the truth from them.
In a rage the father began to slap his daughter’s face. At first, the holy virgin remained quiet, but then she told her father about her faith in the One True God, and that she had destroyed the idols with her own hands. Urban gave orders to kill all the servants in attendance upon his daughter, and he gave Christina a fierce beating and threw her in prison. Having learned about what had happened, Saint Christina’s mother came in tears, imploring her to renounce Christ and to return to her ancestral beliefs. But Christina remained unyielding. On another day, Urban brought his daughter to trial and urged her to offer worship to the gods, and to ask forgiveness for her misdeeds. Instead, he saw her firm and steadfast confession of faith in Christ...keep reading OCA
St Declan bishop of Ardmore, Ireland ( 5th c.)_Celtic and British
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If thou hast the right, O Erin, to a champion of battle to aid thee thou hast the head of a hundred thousand, Declan of Ardmore" (Martyrology of Oengus).
Five miles or less to the east of Youghal Harbour, on the southern Irish coast, a short, rocky and rather elevated promontory juts, with a south-easterly trend, into the ocean [± 51° 57' N / 7° 43' W]. Maps and admiralty charts call it Ram Head, but the real name is Ceann-a-Rama and popularly it is often styled Ardmore Head. The material of this inhospitable coast is a hard metamorphic schist which bids defiance to time and weather. Landwards the shore curves in clay cliffs to the north-east, leaving, between it and the iron headland beyond, a shallow exposed bay wherein many a proud ship has met her doom. Nestling at the north side of the headland and sheltered by the latter from Atlantic storms stands one of the most remarkable groups of ancient ecclesiastical remains in Ireland—all that has survived of St. Declan's holy city of Ardmore. This embraces a beautiful and perfect round tower, a singularly interesting ruined church commonly called the cathedral, the ruins of a second church beside a holy well, a primitive oratory, a couple of ogham inscribed pillar stones, &c., &c.
No Irish saint perhaps has so strong a local hold as Declan or has left so abiding a popular memory. Nevertheless his period is one of the great disputed questions of early Irish history. According to the express testimony of his Life, corroborated by testimony of the Lives of SS. Ailbhe and Ciaran, he preceded St. Patrick in the Irish mission and was a co-temporary of the national apostle. Objection, exception or opposition to the theory of Declan's early period is based less on any inherent improbability in the theory itself than on contradictions and inconsistencies in the Life. Beyond any doubt the Life does actually contradict itself; it makes Declan a cotemporary of Patrick in the fifth century and a cotemporary likewise of St. David a century later. In any attempted solution of the difficulty involved it may be helpful to remember a special motive likely to animate a tribal histrographer, scil.:—the family relationship, if we may so call it, of the two saints; David was bishop of the Deisi colony in Wales as Declan was bishop of their kinsmen of southern Ireland. It was very probably part of the writer's purpose to call attention to the links of kindred which bound the separated Deisi; witness his allusion later to the alleged visit of Declan to his kinsmen of Bregia. Possibly there were several Declans, as there were scores of Colmans, Finians, &c., and hence perhaps the confusion and some of the apparent inconsistencies. There was certainly a second Declan, a disciple of St. Virgilius, to whom the latter committed care of a church in Austria where he died towards close of eighth century. Again we find mention of a St. Declan who was a foster son of Mogue of Ferns, and so on. It is too much, as Delehaye ("Legendes Hagiographiques") remarks, to expect the populace to distinguish between namesakes. Great men are so rare! Is it likely there should have lived two saints of the same name in the same country!
The latest commentators on the question of St. Declan's period—and they happen to be amongst the most weighty—argue strongly in favour of the pre-Patrician mission (Cfr. Prof. Kuno Meyer, "Learning Ireland in the Fifth Century"). Discussing the way in which letters first reached our distant island of the west and the causes which led to the proficiency of sixth-century Ireland in classical learning Zimmer and Meyer contend that the seeds of that literary culture, which flourished in Ireland of the sixth century, had been sown therein in the first and second decades of the preceding century by Gaulish scholars who had fled from their own country owing to invasion of the latter by Goths and other barbarians. The fact that these scholars, who were mostly Christians, sought asylum in Ireland indicates that Christianity had already penetrated thither, or at any rate that it was known and tolerated there. Dr. Meyer answers the objection that if so large and so important an invasion of scholars took place we ought have some reference to the fact in the Irish annals. The annals, he replies, are of local origin and they rarely refer in their oldest parts to national events: moreover they are very meagre in their information about the fifth century. One Irish reference to the Gaulish scholars is, however, adduced in corroboration; it occurs in that well known passage in St. Patrick's "Confessio" where the saint cries out against certain "rhetoricians" in Ireland who were hostile to him and pagan,—"You rhetoricians who do not know the Lord, hear and search Who it was that called me up, fool though I be, from the midst of those who think themselves wise and skilled in the law and mighty orators and powerful in everything." Who were these "rhetorici" that have made this passage so difficult for commentators and have caused so various constructions to be put upon it? It is clear, the professor maintains, that the reference is to pagan rhetors from Gaul whose arrogant presumption, founded on their learning, made them regard with disdain the comparatively illiterate apostle of the Scots. Everyone is familiar with the classic passage of Tacitus wherein he alludes to the harbours of Ireland as being more familiar to continental mariners than those of Britain. We have references moreover to refugee Christians who fled to Ireland from the persecutions of Diocletian more than a century before St. Patrick's day; in addition it is abundantly evident that many Irishmen—Christians like Celestius the lieutenant of Pelagius, and possibly Pelagius himself, amongst them—had risen to distinction or notoriety abroad before middle of the fifth century.
Possibly the best way to present the question of Declan's age is to put in tabulated form the arguments of the pre-Patrician advocates against the counter contentions of those who claim that Declan's period is later than Patrick's...keep reading this riveting life
Luke 21:12-19 NKJV
12 But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons. You will be brought before kings and rulers for My name’s sake. 13 But it will turn out for you as an occasion for testimony. 14 Therefore settle it in your hearts not to meditate beforehand on what you will [a]answer; 15 for I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to contradict or [b]resist.16 You will be betrayed even by parents and brothers, relatives and friends; and they will put some of you to death. 17 And you will be hated by all for My name’s sake. 18 But not a hair of your head shall be lost. 19 By your patience possess your souls.
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Luke 21:14 say in defense
Luke 21:15 withstand
Roman 8:28-39 NKJV
28 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose. 29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.
God’s Everlasting Love
31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? 33 Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies. 34 Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 36 As it is written:
“For Your sake we are killed all day long; We are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.”
37 Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us. 38 For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come, 39 nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
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New King James Version (NKJV) Scripture taken from the New King James Version®. Copyright © 1982 by Thomas Nelson. All rights reserved.
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