Louis, Anne, Philippe, Mazarin, Beaufort, and most importantly, Pistache
La Mode illustrée, no. 51, 18 décembre 1892, Paris. Toilettes de bal. Modèles de chez Mmes Coussinet-Piret, rue Richer, 43. Ville de Paris / Bibliothèque Forney
Dos de la robe-Empire. Dos de la robe de bal pour jeune fille. Dos de la robe de soie crème brodée d'or. Dos de la robe en damas et mousseline de soie. Dos de la robe en tulle pour jeune fille. Dos de la robe Louis XV.
Toilette en soie glaçée. Toilette-Empire. Robe de bal pour jeune fille. Robe en damas et mousseline de soie. Robe en tulle pour jeune fille. Robe Louis XV. Robe en soie crème brodée d'or. Robe en mousseline brodée pour jeune fille. Robe de bal Empire. Robe Louis XIV.
Portrait of Louis XIV in Coronation Clothes (1701) by Jacint Rigau. Louvre Museum, Paris.
This is the most famous painting by the artist Jacint Rigau, though most of the time you'll see the artist credited as Hyacinthe Rigaud... Do you want to know what happened?
Jacint Rigau was born in Perpinyà (Northern Catalonia) in 1659. Perpinyà was a city like any other in Catalonia, where the population spoke the Catalan language. As was normal, he was named in their mother tongue, the Catalan name "Jacint" with his family's surname Rigau.
However, a few months after his birth, the part of Catalonia north of the Pyrenee mountain range was annexed by France. This part of Catalonia became known as "Northern Catalonia", and it's still part of France nowadays.
In April 1700, the king of France Louis XIV (seen in the portrait above) forbid the use of the Catalan language in public, saying that "the Catalan language [...] its use is repugnant and is in some way contrary to Our Authority, to the honor of the French Nation".
Jacint Rigau moved out of Northern Catalonia to go learn painting in Montpellier and later moved to work Paris for the French nobles. He became one of the most important painters of the time in France and so, as we saw at the beginning of the post, he was even commissioned the King's portrait.
Here's a few examples more of his work:
Self-portrait of the artist (1696), private collection.
Portrait of Marie Cadenne (1684), Musée des Beaux-arts de Caen.
Left: Louis of France, the Great Dauphin (1688), Versailles palace. Right: Louis of France, Duke of Bourgogne (1704), Versailles palace.
With the historical context and the discrimination against the Catalan language, it's no surprise that he had to translate his name to French. What might surprise you if you're not familiar with France's history of language discrimination is that, even now (2022), Northern Catalans aren't allowed to name their children in the Catalan language if it uses a graphy that doesn't exist in French. For example, you can't be called popular names like "Martí", "Víctor" or "Lídia" because of the excuse that "í" doesn't exist in French.
The official prohibition of using the Catalan language in public acts is also still active. Only some months ago, the French government sued the city council of the village Elna (Northern Catalonia) for having used Catalan alongside French in the city hall's meetings.
Now you know!
The storming of Valenciennes by Jean Alaux
Musketeers of the Guard entering the citadel of Valenciennes, 1677
Post Season 3
Anne: Aramis, we need to talk about the example you are setting for Louis
Aramis, standing on his desk: Bold words coming from someone standing in lava
As of today, May 9th, 2022, Elizabeth II has officially become the third longest reigning monarch in history. At 70 years and 92 days, she has officially surpassed the former third longest reigning monarch, Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein.
The second longest reigning monarch is Bhumibol Adulyadej, Rama IX of Thailand. He reigned for 70 years, 126 days, and she will surpass that just over a month.
The longest ever reigning monarch is Louis XIV, who became King at just 4 years old, and ruled for an astonishing 72 years, 110 days.
I know that Enjolras is compared to classical figures so many times that the Apollo comparison when the National Guard catches up to him isn’t out of place (”there was one insurgent I heard referred to as Apollo”), but I can’t help but wonder if it was also a joke.
Louis XIV, the most prominent absolute monarch in French history, was called “the Sun King” because of his association with Apollo (he chose the sun as his emblem to link himself to the god). There’s even a painting of him dressed up as Apollo:
Les Amis definitely aren’t averse to Louis XIV jokes (the original Bossuet was part of his court). But Enjolras also isn’t comical in the same way that Bossuet is? He can be funny, of course (he makes puns, too, and “Patria is my mistress” is definitely. A Line.), but the text usually treats him very seriously. Apollo also symbolized so many things that it’s easy to see the classical symbolism being prioritized over the link to Louis XIV. That being said, this is probably the closest thing to a joke in that very tragic chapter, so I think I’m going to imagine the National Guard getting this mental image while facing Enjolras while he thinks about the virtues of republican government.
Political cartoon of Charles de Gaulle, L’Europe — c’est moi !
by Fritz Behrendt
Featuring Napoleon Bonaparte on the left depicted as “Charles Bonaparte” and Louis XIV on the right depicted as “Charles XIV”
Versailles season 3 thoughts
I just finished my Versailles rewatch and I wanted to share some of my thoughts on the last season
- I HATE Madame de Maintenon so much you have no idea
- Three of her worst crimes: getting Liselotte’s baby taken away, firing Chev as master of ceremonies, and starting the whole ‘get rid of the Protestants’ thing
- It was very cathartic when her nude portraits got exposed
- We really took Madame de Montespan for granted
- You know it’s bad when you hate another mistress more than the one who participated in an attempted baby sacrifice
- I don’t like the ‘man in the iron mask’ plot line very much, I just don’t find it that interesting
- The whole thing was just Phillipe getting gaslit until the end
- RIP Maria-Theresa, you were a girlboss
- (the way she died is my WORST NIGHTMARE, I have a bug phobia, especially them crawling into my ears/nose/mouth)
- CHEVALIER’S HAIR THIS SEASON IS SO AMAZING
- They also give Liselotte way better hairstyles this season, she looks so pretty with her hair in a braid
- I don’t like the Paris people at all, sorry they are boring
- I know a lot of people like Guillaume but I don’t care about him
- I don’t like Delphine (I call her ‘that woman’) because I feel like she is taking advantage of Chev
- Like he is risking his life to help her and her friends and she is like “I wouldn’t marry you if you were the last person on earth”
- It was better towards the end I guess but I’m not a fan of their relationship
- I do love bi Chev though <3
- When they burned down Delphine’s father’s house I was like nooooo that house is so pretty
- I do respect her for keeping her faith but she needs to think about self preservation more
- If it was me I would just lie about being Catholic and continue to be Protestant in secret (I’m Lutheran irl)
- I hate the Vatican but I hate Louis even more
- I actually really like Colbert (RIP)
- The Portuguese infanta was kinda slay and Louis was super rude to her
- Louis thinking he is a god makes me so angry
- Can I just point out how during the thaumaturgy Louis didn’t even touch the people??? He just hovered his hands over them like he didn’t want to get dirty poor people germs
- Why did they have to do that to Fabien :( let him go be with Sophie or something
- This season is just Louis being stupid
- Last three episodes: screaming crying throwing up
- Love Monchelotte at the end though
- Overall: imo it is the worst season but still worth watching
Louis XIV outside the Louvre
Leurs Majestés Impériales dans le salon de Diane au château de Versailles
Their Imperial Majesties in the Salon of Diane at the Château de Versailles.
His Majesty the Emperor Napoléon IV shares a new official portrait on the eve of the next annual State Opening of Parliament. In the Great Apartments of King Louis XIV, his ancestor, the Emperor advises the chambers of the divine and absolute powers vested in him.
The imperial couple pose next to the superb and famous white marble bust of Louis XIV made by "Le Bernin" Bernini in 1665.
The Children of Francesim are also expected to attend the ceremony. This is the first time they will participate.
Sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon IV partage un nouveau portrait officiel à l'aube de la prochaine cérémonie annuelle d'ouverture du Parlement. Pris au sein même des Grands Appartements du roi Louis XIV, son ancêtre, l'Empereur avertit les chambres des pouvoirs de droit divin et absolus qui lui sont conférés.
Le couple impérial pose auprès du superbe et célèbre buste en marbre blanc de Louis XIV réalisé par Le Bernin en 1665.