Where did all the water come from ? and which is oldest, the Sun or the water in our oceans ?
It may seem an odd question, after all, logic would suggest that the planet Earth isn't as old as the Sun which it formed around 4.55 billion years ago and the Sun started life around 4.6 billion years ago.
But, if you ask where did all the water come from, you'll understand the water we have in our oceans didn't necessarily originate here on Earth in the first instance.
So, let's start with what we do know. Space is full of hydrogen and helium gas, the stuff that powers our stars, but ever since the first star started to fuse these gasses, they have been busy pumping out more complex elements, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen .. and these have been combining to make water, Carbon dioxide, Methane and much much more.
Occasionally these clouds are brought together in regions, and gravity starts to pull them together into knots and strands.
Gravity continues it's work, pulling in material until it reaches a critical point where an inner core ignites and begins to fuse, and that fusion is what pushes back against the gravity, forming an equilibrium that will define what is the star and what is not. All the other material left behind spins rapidly around the new star, forming a disk and once again gravity starts to act and planets are created.
So where is water in this process ? The water was present right from the start, in the nebulous clouds that formed the star, both in terms of raw elements of hydrogen and oxygen, but also as water stuck on grains of dust and in some cases hydrogen and oxygen are bonded in different isotopes, creating heavy water.
So we know water existed before our Sun, but is that the same water in our oceans ?
Two main theories arise, either the water arrived on Earth through chemical inheritance, in that, the water was created externally, then made it's way to us as water, or it arrived as heavy water and then later down the line was converted back into water forming semi-heavy water.
Measuring the ratio between these two different types of water can tell us, and it wasn't until very recently that we've had the ability to measure this around stars forming.
Here on Earth, we find a mix of water, semi-heavy and not, but in space, in our own solar system, as comets and as ice on moons, we see mostly water, which is clearly chemical inheritance.
Observations of V883 Ori a newly forming star 1,300 light years from Earth provided an opportunity to measure this ratio as the system is forming.
And what they found was that V883 Ori held the same water mix as we see in outer space and in nebula, and a lower ratio of the semi-heavy water.
The conclusion is, the water in proto planetary disks is mostly normal water, and the process is indeed inheritance from that accretion disk, making most water in our solar system older than our own Sun !
But .. Earth has an odd mix, meaning it's almost certain that Earth also obtained water from multiple sources in it's early life, some of which was chemically altered into the water we see in our oceans along side the water that was delivered to us as our planet was born.
It doesn't answer how that water was delivered to our planet, by comets or by simple accretion at the start or accretion at a later date as gas we still sat in our birth nebula.
Published in the journal One Earth today (February 17), the report states that partly due to amplifying climate feedbacks, "a very rapid drawdown in emissions will be required to limit future warming."
Researchers from the United States and Europe listed and described 41 climate feedback loops that have major implications for the outlook on climate change. Climate feedback loops are processes that can either amplify or diminish the effects of our greenhouse gas emissions, initiating a cyclical chain reaction that keeps repeating again and again. There are many large amplifying feedbacks that accentuate warming. In total, the researchers identified 27 amplifying feedbacks, 7 dampening feedbacks, and 7 uncertain feedbacks.
The lead authors, Christopher Wolf, a postdoctoral researcher at OSU, and William Ripple, a distinguished professor of ecology at OSU, were joined by several US and international scientists who are credited as co-authors on the report. Ripple is also an affiliate scientist with the Conservation Biology Institute.
Ostara is a time of renewal and new beginnings, and there are many practices you can incorporate into your celebrations.
Here are some examples:
Plant a seed: Ostara is a perfect time to plant new seeds both physically and metaphorically. Consider planting a new herb, vegetable, or flower in your garden or in a pot indoors. As you plant the seed, set your intention for what you hope to grow and manifest in your life.
Create an Ostara altar: Use the colors of the season such as pastels and spring greens, fresh flowers, and symbols of growth like eggs and seeds to create an altar that celebrates the coming of spring. Take a moment to connect with the energy of the season and set intentions for the coming months.
Make springtime crafts: Get creative with DIY crafts that celebrate the season, such as painting eggs or creating flower crowns. Use natural materials and incorporate elements of spring like flowers, leaves, and pastel colors.
Go on a nature walk: Take a walk in nature and observe the signs of spring, such as the buds on the trees and the return of migrating birds. Connect with the energy of the season and take time to reflect on what you want to grow and manifest in your life.
Have a spring cleaning ritual: Use the energy of Ostara to clear out any physical or emotional clutter. Clean your home, declutter your space, and let go of anything that no longer serves you. You can also do a ritual cleansing using herbal smoke or homemade sprays to clear negative energy.
Enjoy a spring feast: Gather with friends and family and prepare a feast using fresh seasonal ingredients. Incorporate spring herbs and vegetables like asparagus, peas, and radishes, and use light and refreshing flavors to celebrate the coming of spring.
These are just a few ideas for new Ostara practices. Remember, the most important thing is to connect with the energy of the season and set intentions for growth and renewal in your life.
Genesis 2:1-2 (NKJV) -
Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done.
"Far away a crow caws. The earth slowly keeps on turning. But beyond any of those details of the real, there are dreams. And everyone’s living in them."
— Haruki Murakami, Kafka on the Shore
Art by Sebastian Luca
"The International Space Station orbits 264 miles above the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Namibia and into an orbital sunset marked by the terminator, or the line separating day from night on Earth."
A human-sized Transformer interrupted my space exam (that I didn't study for), so I blew him up, but my classmate got all the glory because he returned us to Earth while everybody else were unconscious.